A-O Pro Tip – How to Move Ground Water from Affecting Your Koi Pond with Art of the Yard

Happy Tip Tuesday again! We’re happy to share yet another helpful A-O Pro Tip with you today! Today’s video features another tip from Shane Hemphill and how to move ground water from affecting your koi pond and water that can gather underneath your pond liner and create problems. This is a super helpful tip when coming across ground water issues in your koi pond construction.

Contractors standing in a dug out pond showing how to create a trench to move ground water from underneath the pond liner

This tip comes from a dedicated koi pond project in Colorado Springs done by Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractors from Art of the Yard. We had Atlantic-OASE staff visit Art of the Yard during their build to catch some awesome A-O Pro Tips!

A-O Pro Tip #15 – How to Move Ground Water from Affecting Your Koi Pond with Art of the Yard

Contractors standing in a dug out pond showing how to create a trench to move ground water from underneath the pond liner

In our 15th Learn From The A-O Pro’s series video, we learn how Shane plans on protecting his koi pond from being affected by ground water underneath his pond liner.

Watch the video here!

One of the problems their client was having with their koi pond was that ground water was pushing and bubbling underneath the pond liner. To fix this issue, Shane explains how his team is going to put in a french drain under the pond to bring the ground water to the lowest part of the pond. Then, they will dig a basin in the back corner of the pond and a connect a PV1800 with an extension to go all the way down to the lowest level of the pond. A trench will lead to the Pump Vault to bring all of the water into the pond-free basin with Eco-Blox. There will be a pump with a float inside so that when it starts filling with water, the pump will pump the water out and into the pond-free pit.

PV1800 Pump Vault with extension
French drain trench to help move ground water from under a pond liner

Shane explains that if they were to leave the pond as is and not do these necessary extra steps, the ground water will continue to come back and great huge bulges and bubbles in the middle of your koi pond, causing lots of future issues.

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

We’re looking for contractors with awesome tips and tricks for our A-O Pro Tips videos and we want to visit you at your builds! Want to be the star of our next tip video? Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

World Photography Day

Canon Camera sitting on a wood railing looking out at a fall day in the woods

Daguerreotype, a photographic process developed by Frenchmen Louis Daguerre and Joseph Nicephore Niepce in 1837, built the foundation to what is now known as World Photography Day. On this day we celebrate the photographer in all of us, novice to expert, it’s a chance to see how others perceive the world through their lens.

The first known photograph was taken in 1826 by none other than Joseph Nicephore Niepce. The photo was soon titled “View from the Window at Le Gras”. This was the gateway to the Daguerreotype that was bought by the French government on January 9th, 1839. The patent was presented as a “free gift to the world” so that everyone could partake in capturing pictures.

On August 19th, 2010, World Photography Day held its very first ever worldwide online gallery. Nearly 270 photographers from over 100 countries participated in sharing their photos. This marked the first official World Photography Day.

Here’s a fun fact for you, Robert Cornelius is the OG of selfies, he snapped his first selfie in 1839! How was this done? He removed the lens cap and ran into frame to get the shot. He wrote on the back of the photograph “The first light picture ever taken 1839”.

So how can you participate on August 19th? Grab your phone or tradition camera, and go out and take some photos! We’d love to see some pictures of your beautiful backyard water features!

Have fun with it and remember to share it online using the hashtag #WorldPhotographyDay!

Want to read more on photography and taking pictures of your water features? We’ve got some great blogs for you to check out! Read: Capturing the Perfect Water Feature Picture and Don’t Throw Away Your Shot! It’s Nature Photography Day!


About the Author:


Leah La Farciola

Like the elusive bigfoot, Leah enjoys the great outdoors. Hiking, biking, attempting to longboard, falling off said longboard, rollerblading, you get the picture. Leah attained a piece of paper from THE Ohio State University that states she can make drawings move on a computer. She is the Multimedia Coordinator for Atlantic-OASE, catch her work on the YouTube.

A-O Pro Tip – Koi Safety, Winterizing a Koi Pond with Art of the Yard

We’ve got another great installation for our Learn From The A-O Pro’s series! Today’s video features Shane Hemphill from Art of the Yard giving us some great advice for winterizing a koi pond!

Pond contractor showing how to construct a koi pond

This tip comes from a dedicated koi pond project in Colorado Springs done by Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractors from Art of the Yard. We had Atlantic-OASE staff visit Art of the Yard during their build to catch some awesome A-O Pro Tips!

A-O Pro Tip #14 – Koi Safety, Winterizing a Koi Pond with Art of the Yard

In our 14th A-O Pro Tip, Shane shows us their set up to ensure great aeration and safety for the koi in both the summer and winter months!

Watch the video here!

This koi pond will have bottom drains, an inline pump and an OASE ProfiClear drumline filter. Shane explains that they wanted their setup to be able to be run in both the summer and the winter. They won’t run the bottom drains in the winter because it would “hyper-cool” the water at the bottom of the pond. When the koi are hibernating in the winter, you want the warmest water to stay at the bottom of the pond to keep the koi safe. Because of this, Shane says, they will only pull water from the Skimmers on the sides of the pond to the waterfall.

Pond contractor showing how to construct a koi pond

In the summer, they will turn the aeration on in the bottom of the pond to get great flow and movement. In the winter, they bring that aeration up to one of the plant shelves to keep the warm water at the bottom of the pond for the koi to hibernate in.

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

We’re looking for contractors with awesome tips and tricks for our A-O Pro Tips videos and we want to visit you at your builds! Want to be the star of our next tip video? Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

A-O Pro Tip – Koi Pond Layout, How to Improve Circulation with Art of the Yard

We’re back with another video for our Learn From The A-O Pro’s series! Today’s video features Shane Hemphill from Art of the Yard showing us a cool koi pond layout and how to improve circulation in your pond!

Contractor, Shane Hemphill, showing the build site and plans for a koi pond

This tip comes from a dedicated koi pond project in Colorado Springs done by Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractors from Art of the Yard. We had Atlantic-OASE staff visit Art of the Yard during their build to catch some awesome A-O Pro Tips!

A-O Pro Tip #13 – Koi Pond Layout, How to Improve Circulation with Art of the Yard

In our 13th A-O Pro Tip, Shane Hemphill, owner of Art of the Yard shows us what his team installs to help keep water moving and circulating in their koi ponds.

Watch the video here!

In the video Shane explains that to eliminate the stagnant area the pond previously had, they installed bottom drains, skimmers and jets. The plan for the pond was to install two bottom drains and two skimmers on opposite sides of the pond.

Skimmer installed into the side of a pond
Skimmer installed into the side of a pond

With the help of a Demi Fortuna’s A-O Pro Tip from an earlier video, Shane shows us how they installed the two skimmers to the side to help pull the water around the pond. Both skimmers are placed in different directions to keep the water flowing. Watch Demi’s tip here: A-O Pro Tip – Hiding a Skimmer with Demi Fortuna.

Shane also notes that good circulation and no stagnant areas are key to a healthy environment for koi fish so, make sure you get your water moving!

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

We’re looking for contractors with awesome tips and tricks for our A-O Pro Tips videos and we want to visit you at your builds! Want to be the star of our next tip video? Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

A-O Pro Tip – Gluing Flex PVC Pipe with Whitaker Waterscapes LLC

In another Learn From The A-O Pro’s series video, Travis Whitaker, shows us a simple and great tip for gluing flex PVC pipe when installing a water feature! Let’s dive into another A-O Pro Tip!

Contractor gluing flex pvc pipe

This tip comes from a demonstration build at Smith Turf Irrigation in Colfax, North Carolina. Contractors from Pond Professors Inc., Whitaker Waterscapes LLC, Atlantic-OASE staff and more all came to Smith Turf Irrigation to teach and learn some water feature installation techniques. During this 1-day training, the contractors installed an awesome pond and waterfall with Atlantic Spouts, a Copper Spillway and a Copper Bowl flowing into the pond!

A-O Pro Tip #12 – Gluing Flex PVC Pipe with Whitaker Waterscapes LLC

Contractor gluing flex pvc pipe

In our 12th A-O Pro Tip, Travis tells us a great way to glue flex PVC pipe into fittings.

Watch the video here!

Travis tells us to heat your PVC pipe up for about 10-15 seconds to help seal the pipe into your fittings. Another simple but easy tip to make installing water features that much easier!

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

We’re looking for more contractors to come film your A-O Pro Tips and we want to visit you at your builds! Do you have some unique and help tips and tricks on installing water features? Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

A-O Pro Tip – Finishing Edging the Rocks with Pond Professors Inc.

Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC), Rex McCaskill, is here to give us some more excellent advice when building a pond. In this A-O Pro Tip he shows us how he finishes the edging of his pond by hiding the pond liner! Let dive on in to what he has to say on finishing edging the rocks to his pond.

Contractor folding the pond liner around the edge of a pond

This tip comes from a demonstration build at Smith Turf Irrigation in Colfax, North Carolina. Contractors from Pond Professors Inc., Whitaker Waterscapes LLC, Atlantic-OASE staff and more all came to Smith Turf Irrigation to teach and learn some water feature installation techniques. During this 1-day training, the contractors installed an awesome pond and waterfall with Atlantic Spouts, a Copper Spillway and a Copper Bowl flowing into the pond!

A-O Pro Tip #11 – Finishing Edging the Rocks with Pond Professors Inc.

Contractor folding the pond liner around the edge of a pond

In our 11th A-O Pro Tip, Rex shows us how to fold the edge of your pond liner and hide it with the rocks and dirt around the edge of your pond.

Watch the A-O Pro Tip here!

Rex explains that you should leave a little bit of extra liner around the edge of your pond in case it settles so, that you can go back and adjust and pull up where needed. He mentions leaving between 4 and 6 inches of liner on the edge and shows how you should fold the liner upwards. Vertically folding the edges of your pond liner with help ensure your water level won’t go under your rocks.

He also recommends getting a good pair of kneeling pads. They will save your knees when getting down and dirty with your pond!

Contractor folding the pond liner around the edge of a pond

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

We’re looking for more contractors to come film your A-O Pro Tips and we want to visit you at your builds! Do you have some unique and help tips and tricks on installing water features? Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagramand subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

A-O Pro Tip – Triton Check Valve with Pond Professors Inc.

Welcome to another A-O Pro Tip from our Learn From The Pro series! This week have some great advice on the Atlantic Triton Check Valve given by Rex McCaskill, from Pond Professors Inc.

Contractor installing a Triton Check Valve into a TT6000 pump

This tip comes from a demonstration build at Smith Turf Irrigation in Colfax, North Carolina. Contractors from Pond Professors Inc., Whitaker Waterscapes LLC, Atlantic-OASE staff and more all came to Smith Turf Irrigation to teach and learn some water feature installation techniques. During this 1-day training, the contractors installed an awesome pond and waterfall with Atlantic Spouts, a Copper Spillway and a Copper Bowl flowing into the pond!

A-O Pro Tip #10 – Triton Check Valve with Pond Professors Inc.

Contractor showing where to cut a Triton Check Valve to fit their pump and skimmer

In our 10th A-O Pro Tip video, Rex explains how to install a Triton Check Valve to his TT-series pump.

Watch the A-O Pro Tip here!

Rex explains how you can use a Triton Check Valve for different Atlantic pump sizes and products like the PS7000 Skimmer they used in this build. He shows us how to read the chart in the Check Valve manual to determine the spot on the Check Valve to cut. The Triton Check Valve has numbers indicated on the side to help guide your installation. See this chart below or in the box of your Triton Check Valve!

Triton Check Valve Discharge Pipe "Perfect Cut" Reference Chart

Rex explains that you don’t have to “go hunting” for any other fittings. It takes out all the guessing and makes life pretty easy when installing. The Check Valve is great because it has two places where you can take it apart to reach your pump for servicing. The Check Valve is also serviceable if needed.

For more information on our Check Valves, visit our website here or contact us at info@atlantic-oase.com!

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

We’re looking for more contractors to come film your A-O Pro Tips and we want to visit you at your builds! Do you have some unique and help tips and tricks on installing water features? Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagramand subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

A-O Pro Tip – Extending A Waterfall with Art of the Yard

It’s Tuesday and we all know what that means! It’s time to learn another A-O Pro Tip! This week’s tip is brought to you by Shane Hemphill and Heath Webb from Art of the Yard. They’re giving us advice on extending a waterfall.

Pond-free waterfall close up with blue color changing lighting

This tip comes from the build in the Sandbox at Atlantic-OASE’s headquarters in Aurora, Ohio. Contractors from Art of the YardAlpine Custom Hardscapes and Demi Fortuna, from his own company, August Moon Designs, came to Ohio to dig in the dirt to kick off the start of this new series. After the 5-day building palooza, they created 3 incredible water features including a pond and waterfall feature with a custom copper bowl fire feature, a pond-free waterfall and a formal fountain hardscape.

A-O Pro Tip #9 – Extending A Waterfall with Art of the Yard

Man building a pond-free waterfall and standing on Eco-Blox matrix blocks

In the 9th A-O Pro Tip of our Learn From The A-O Pro’s series, Shane Hemphill and Heath Webb show us how they extend a screen on a pond-free waterfall to keep you from seeing the dry rock look.

Watch the A-O Pro Tip here!

Shane explains how, normally, you would backfill the pond-free reservoir with dirt and create a tight space so you don’t have to put in as much river rock. Instead, they decided to extend the waterfall all the way to the end of the Eco-Blox by using more waterfall stones. Heath shows us how they extend the waterfall by placing a bib liner on top of the Eco-Blox, first, to put the last waterfall stone on top. This extends the waterfall further out and helps prevent the dry stone look because the waterfall reaches more of the rocks.

Pond-free waterfall construction with a bib liner over Eco-Blox matrix blocks

Learn more about our Pond-free waterfall systems here!

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

Do you have some unique and help tips and tricks on installing water features? We’re looking for the next A-O Pro to be featured in our video series and we want to visit you! Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagramand subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

A-O Pro Tip – Framing Rocks with Whitaker Waterscapes LLC

This week we have some more helpful advice for our Learn From The A-O Pro Series from Travis Whitaker, owner of Whitaker Waterscapes LLC! Travis gives us some great tips on building waterfalls and using framing rocks to do so!

Man placing framing rocks for a waterfall creation

This tip comes from a demonstration build at Smith Turf Irrigation in Colfax, North Carolina. Contractors from Pond Professors Inc., Whitaker Waterscapes LLC, Atlantic-OASE staff and more all came to Smith Turf Irrigation to teach and learn some water feature installation techniques. During this 1-day training, the contractors installed an awesome pond and waterfall with Atlantic Spouts, a Copper Spillway and a Copper Bowl flowing into the pond!

A-O Pro Tip #8 – Framing Rocks with Whitaker Waterscapes LLC

Two men placing framing rocks for a waterfall

In our 8th A-O Pro Tip video, Travis shows us how he uses frame rocks to shape his waterfall.

Watch the A-O Pro Tip here!

Travis explains that he likes to set their frame rocks first when creating their waterfalls. He talks about how in the mountains you’ll see waterfalls with large rocks and smaller rocks will tumble in between those large rocks to create the waterfall. The large rocks are called frame rocks. His team will set their first frame rock, then their waterfall stone and then the second frame rock. These framing rocks combined with waterfall rocks will guide the water down the rocks to create an awesome waterfall!

Another tip Travis gives us is that he leaves the straps around his frame rocks so that if he decides to change the position of the rocks for his waterfall, he can easily move or take the rocks out. He says it’s not uncommon for him to build a waterfall five times until they find the perfect fit of the rocks.

Men creating a waterfall into a pond

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

Do you have some unique and help tips and tricks on installing water features? We’re looking for the next A-O Pro to be featured in our video series and we want to visit you! Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagramand subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

A-O Pro Tip – Installing a Skimmer with Pond Professors Inc. & Whitaker Waterscapes LLC

It’s our favorite day of the week, Tip Tuesday that is, and we have another A-O Pro Tip for you! This week, Rex McCaskill and Travis Whitaker give us some helpful tips when installing a Skimmer. Let’s dive right in and see what tips they have for us!

Contractor installing a skimmer into the side of a pond

This tip comes from a demonstration build at Smith Turf Irrigation in Colfax, North Carolina. Contractors from Pond Professors Inc., Whitaker Waterscapes LLC, Atlantic-OASE staff and more all came to Smith Turf Irrigation to teach and learn some water feature installation techniques. During this 1-day training, the contractors installed an awesome pond and waterfall with Atlantic Spouts, a Copper Spillway and a Copper Bowl flowing into the pond!

A-O Pro Tip #7 – Installing a Skimmer with Pond Professors Inc. & Whitaker Waterscapes LLC

Pond with waterfall, copper spillway bowl, wall spouts and copper spillway

For the 7th A-O Pro Tip in our Learn From The A-O Pro’s series, Rex McCaskill from Pond Professors Inc. and Travis Whitaker from Whitaker Waterscapes LLC, show us some helpful tips to consider when installing a skimmer into your pond.

Watch the A-O Pro Tip here!

Both Rex and Travis explain how important it is to make sure your skimmer is level when installing. Travis also explains that you make sure the skimmer is installed on the opposite side of your waterfall for good circulation.

Skimmer installed into the side of a pond

Travis and Rex also teach the contractors how to install their pond liner and rocks higher than the overflow of the skimmer.

Want to be featured in the next A-O Pro Video?

Do you have some unique and help tips and tricks on installing water features? We’re looking for the next A-O Pro to be featured in our video series and we want to visit you! Tell us what upcoming water feature builds you have planned and what A-O Pro tips you have for us and we’ll send someone from the Atlantic-OASE team out to video you and your work!

Contact your Regional Sales Manager to learn more on the A-O Pro Series. Not sure who your Regional Sales Manager is? Contact us at marketing@atlantic-oase.com

Stay tuned for more A-O Pro Tips here on the blog and don’t forget to follow us on Instagramand subscribe to our YouTube so you don’t miss out on all the Learn From The A-O Pro’s videos!

Comment below for more questions on installing a skimmer or email us at info@atlantic-oase.com


About the Author:

Caitlyn Winkle

After graduating from the University of Akron, Caitlyn joined Atlantic-OASE in the fall of 2019. Caitlyn manages the social media and online content for the company. She also supports the Atlantic-OASE Professional Contractor (APC) Program and Marketing Departments in creating marketing and advertising strategies and plans.

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